With the acceleration of the urbanization process, the density of urban population is getting larger and larger, and the utilization of urban space resources shows a general trend of development to three levels of space. The informatization of urban space infrastructure will also become an inevitable trend. How to make better use and management of urban underground space?
At present, domestic and international academic circles and municipal management agencies are also discussing. For example, some industry experts have proposed to change the current transportation structure and transportation mode based on "the development trend of urban underground transportation in Wuhan" and vigorously develop underground transportation facilities; "Application research in the construction and maintenance of underground integrated pipeline corridors", proposes the comprehensive use of the Internet of Things and BIM tools from the three stages of design, construction, and maintenance; some experts have applied "Beidou + Internet of Things technology in underground pipeline management" The article proposes to use Beidou satellite system positioning + Internet of Things technology to carry out safety supervision of underground gas pipelines. It is not difficult to see from the above cases that the use of underground space in the current industry is mostly limited to specific industries, such as transportation, gas, water supply, and comprehensive pipe corridor construction.
The overall trend of the development of three levels of urban space
Due to urban road congestion, road zipper, smog, urban waterlogging and other problems, people's calls for improving the urban environment are getting higher and higher. However, the root of the current urban problem lies in the fact that urban development models and infrastructure violate the law of harmonious development between man and nature to a certain extent. The development trend of urban space is expanding to three levels of space, including underground space, ground space and urban space.
The future urban development trend is to develop infrastructure as much as possible to underground space, including transportation, electricity, communications, gas, tap water, water storage and drainage, etc .; urban architecture, garden vegetation, civic activity spaces, infiltration roads, industrialization of construction activities, urban factories Relocation to the suburbs (the factory will use robots on a large scale in the future) can optimize the natural space on the ground; urban air ducts, drone traffic routes, and unmanned aerial vehicle traffic routes will optimize urban upper space
The proportion of the three-story space city infrastructure should be 5: 4: 1, while the current proportion is 3: 7: 0. However, with the development of comprehensive pipe gallery technology, sponge city technology, and driverless technology, the proportion of urban underground transportation will become higher and higher, and the proportion of urban underground infrastructure will also increase.
Development of smart city underground space and infrastructure is urgent
Most of the old urban areas of China have exposed common urban problems such as traffic congestion, decline in urban infrastructure support capacity, and deterioration of the living environment. The development of underground space can effectively alleviate the real problems of the old city. With the acceleration of urbanization, the future In 10 years, the city will bear 70% of the population, and the development space of urban ground space is very limited. Over 60% of the city's old urban areas are overloaded, which greatly reduces the comfort of urban residents. In the future, the underground space planning system and management mechanism will gradually improve.
At the same time, current urban underground pipeline managers such as electricity, communications, gas, water supply and drainage belong to different government departments or enterprises, forming an information island, which makes the underground space more and more crowded, underground pipelines are cut down, construction is blocked, etc. Problems occur from time to time. According to estimates, the annual direct economic loss of underground pipeline accidents caused by construction in Chinese cities is about 5 billion yuan, and the indirect economic loss is about 40 billion yuan. Urgent need to implement unified planning, design, construction and management to completely change the chaotic situation of pipeline self-construction and independent management. The premise of unified planning is to establish a network information model of the underground space, and digitally display the functions, locations, depths, and spacings of various pipelines in real time.
Under the current concept of large transportation, urban underground transportation, intercity high-speed rail, and subway have formed a major transportation trend. The city has built more and more expressways in the form of underground tunnels. Expressways are the embryonic form of cities going underground in the future. At the same time, urban subways also need to be connected and referenced between the underground floor and garages of urban buildings when planning to avoid subway vibrations that disturb people and damage the building foundation. This requires the establishment of a spatial model below the urban ground level. Without this spatial model, Unable to coordinate planning.
Waterlogging is also a big problem for our cities. Waterlogging occurs in first-tier cities in China every summer, and with the increase in population density and urban expansion, the problem of waterlogging becomes more serious. According to the development experience of developed countries such as Britain, Germany, and Japan, it is an inevitable trend to build underground palace-style water storage and drainage systems. The planning and design of underground water supply and drainage systems for sponge cities requires a complete urban underground space model. Therefore, urban public pipeline facilities, underground transportation facilities, and sponge city facilities all need a unified urban underground space model for unified planning, collaborative design, and simultaneous implementation.
How to develop smart city underground space and infrastructure
Based on the current situation, the Information Model of Urban Underground Public Facilities (UIM) emerged at the historic moment. UIM is based on the Internet of Things technology and faces the development trend of urban underground space resource planning. Free up more natural environment space for citizens' lives, comply with the laws of nature, reduce urban traffic pollution and the damage of the concrete ground to the natural environment on the ground.
At present, there are already development environments such as Building Information Modeling (BIM), ArcGIS + Engine Geographic Information System, and OpenGL (OpenGraphicsLibrary). Mapping, synchronization. Demonstrate urban underground infrastructure and geological conditions on a unified platform.
How to realize the development of underground space and infrastructure in smart cities
Traditional digital cities focus on government informatization, urban geospatial GIS (Geographic Information System) systems, wireless cities, and optical network city construction. They are preliminary digital applications. Digital Twin (DigitalTwin) is to digitalize all urban activities and urban physical environments and map them into the digital world. Digital twins were originally only used in the field of industrial precision manufacturing. They fully utilized data such as physical models, sensor updates, and operation history, integrated multi-disciplinary, multi-physical quantities, multi-scale, and multi-probability simulation processes, and completed mapping in virtual space to reflect The full life cycle process of the corresponding physical equipment. For urban space resources, the application of digital twin technology has broad prospects. In the past, city managers managed government affairs information and managed the interconnection of data through process informationization. This is the digital twinning of urban activities. The digitalization of the city brings digital assets to the city. Unlike the mineral resources, it can be reused an unlimited number of times to maximize its value.
The Internet of Everything (Internet of Things or Internet of Things, referred to as IoT in this article) concept has been proposed as early as 2001. The Internet has enabled human activities to be digitized, and has opened a channel for rapid interaction between humans. The Internet of Things has enabled the digitization of the physical world, and has opened the channel between the digital world and the physical world. The Internet of Things is in the middle stage of the digital economy on the development and evolution path of human technology and economy. It is the stage after the digitization of the physical world. With the help of existing communication networks and Internet channels, collecting field digital information changes the former "Internet-people-Internet" The interaction mode is the "thing-internet-thing" mode. In this process, the role of humans is to continuously improve the technical level, economic value, and application functions of this interaction method, and to prepare the society for the subsequent artificial intelligence technology and economic form bedding.
The Internet of Things is not a technological revolution, but an upgrade and evolution. The traditional Internet of Things is commonly referred to as a sensor network.It collects data from top to bottom through RFID and sensors. It is usually divided into sensing layer, network layer, and transmission layer. City smart meter reading, Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), and smart parking in the mall. Etc. Currently more applications. The new type of Internet of Things emphasizes the local communication and coordination capabilities between things and reduces human participation. It is the foundation of future artificial intelligence. People's activities in the city are dynamic. The Internet of Things is responsible for collecting real-time data of dynamic environments and facilities, and then collecting them to reflect the entire city's transportation, water, electricity, gas and other public facilities, sewage, rainwater and drainage. Infrastructure such as air conditions, smart street light poles, lighting, parking spaces, charging stations, public bicycles, and sanitation vehicles can all be connected via the Internet of Things. The essence of the Internet of Things connection is to operate the city as a very large enterprise. If you want to operate a very large enterprise better, you must know the real-time operation of the city, feel the pulse of urban rhythm, and do real-time disposal according to the plan. Connection itself is a kind of value. In the Internet and Internet of Things era, the greater the number of connections of a node, the greater its value, as well as the city. Gartner estimates that the number of global IoT connections will reach 9.7 billion by 2020.
Big data system for urban underground information infrastructure
At present, the total length of urban underground pipelines in China has exceeded 2 million kilometers and is growing at a rate of 100,000 kilometers every year. The construction data, status data, and maintenance data of the pipeline constitute a large amount of data. The existing underground space infrastructure will gradually be transformed into a comprehensive pipeline corridor. At present, many old urban areas are densely populated, pipelines are aging, and pipe hole resources are saturated. The repeated repeated excavation has large social and pollution costs. Cities will explore the form of comprehensive pipe corridors, and urban underground infrastructure will be upgraded through comprehensive pipe corridors in the future The transformation has more intelligent perception and digital twin functions. Urban underground is a valuable space resource. In addition to subways, pipelines, and small tunnels on urban expressways, urban ground transportation and pipeline facilities will be gradually moved to the ground in the future. The planning, design, construction, and maintenance of urban underground space all require a set of big data systems based on digital twins to achieve multi-regulation integration, collaborative planning, and collaborative construction. With this big data system, the foundation of an artificial intelligence city can be found.
In the traditional sense, a smart city is the informationization of a city. Informationization is a mapping of the physical world and the digital world. Because artificial intelligence can recognize the digital environment, only big data systems based on digitization, the Internet of Things, the Internet, and big data can lay the foundation for artificial intelligence, otherwise extensive artificial intelligence cannot be achieved. Taking unmanned driving as an example, the current mainstream technology route is intelligent connected cars, that is, road digitization, vehicle digitization, vehicle networking, and pattern recognition technology can finally achieve unmanned driving on urban roads. Relying on bicycle intelligence alone cannot achieve unmanned Driving, this is a gradual process. The ground transportation in future cities will be developed underground. Underground space big data systems will provide unmanned vehicles with the best routes, optimal speeds, and traffic dynamics for the entire city. Like this, other industries also make decisions based on such a big data system to implement data invocation and edge computing.
The theory and practice of smart cities have developed for 10 years starting in 2009. Looking back on the past 10 years of practice, it can be seen that the path from digitization to the Internet, the Internet of Things, and digital twin big data systems is gradual. At present, the government is the main driving force for the construction of smart cities. In the future, the renewal of ideas will promote the upgrading and innovation of the entire society. The construction of smart cities will form a win-win model led by the government and the participation of the entire industry. It will realize ecological, collaborative and socialization. Become an important carrier in this direction.
Article Source: Communication World